In books blogs and video clips I have discussed how in a universe where all time exists at once dark matter and dark energy are a natural outcome of the structure. My 1989 book (now out on Kindle) first proposed the structure of the universe in which all time can occur in a single instant. In 2006 an updated version of the theory explained how this concept explains both dark matter and dark energy.

Several others have published ideas that follow my own reasoning; John Moffat, an astronomer at the University of Waterloo in Canada, and Joel Brownstein, his graduate student, said in a study detailed in the Nov. 21 2007 issue of the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, that Modified Gravity (MOG) theory can explain the appearance of dark matter. Dodelson (Scott) and Liguori (Michele) in “Can Cosmic Structure Form without Dark Matter?”, Physical Review Letters 97, 231301 (2006) also conjectured that gravity variations can account for observed phenomena and that dark matter may not exist.

The stumbling block appears to be that many assume that we need to experience a variation in one of the fundamental constants to achieve this outcome; but my theory states that this is not necessarily the case. We can explain or at least understand dark matter by simply taking Newton’s formula for a gravitational field and extrapolating that to fit an expanding universe. We must be very aware of the difference between a force (F) and a field (f) and remember that generally when speaking of gravity we are discussing the field not the force. The two equations below show the difference, equation 1 is Newton’s original explanation; but in equation 2, I have specified Δf to denote the gravitational field of the entire universe.

In a universe that expands at the rate of H (Hubble’s constant) the distance between objects is continually increasing at this rate; thus changing the strength of the universal gravitational field. The change in the strength of this field will produce the effects that we perceive as dark matter, dark energy and various other phenomena that are fully detailed in my 2006 book.

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